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Breast Cancer: Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Introduction to Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a critical health issue affecting women worldwide, defined by the abnormal proliferation of cells in breast tissue. This comprehensive guide covers breast cancer’s various types, causes, symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment options, and the costs of treatment in India, with an emphasis on “Breast Cancer Treatment Cost In India.”

Types of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer can be categorized into several types, each with distinct characteristics and treatment strategies:

  1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Non-invasive cancer confined to the breast ducts.
  2. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): The most common type, originating in the milk ducts and spreading to surrounding tissues.
  3. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Starts in the lobules (milk-producing glands) and can spread to adjacent areas.
  4. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Lacks estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, making it more challenging to treat with standard therapies.
  5. HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Characterized by overproduction of the HER2 protein, which drives cancer growth but can be targeted with specific therapies.

Causes and Risk Factors

Understanding the risk factors for breast cancer aids in prevention and early detection:

  • Gender and Age: Predominantly affects women, especially those over 50.
  • Genetic Mutations: Inherited mutations like BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase risk.
  • Family History: A family history of breast cancer increases risk.
  • Hormonal Factors: Extended exposure to estrogen, early menstruation onset, late menopause, or hormone replacement therapy.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a lack of physical activity.
  • Environmental Exposures: Contact with radiation or harmful environmental chemicals.

Recognizing Symptoms

Early detection is crucial, and awareness of symptoms can lead to prompt medical attention:

  • Lump or thickening in the breast or underarm
  • Changes in breast size, shape, or appearance
  • Nipple changes (inversion, discharge)
  • Skin changes on the breast (redness, dimpling, puckering)

Diagnostic Techniques

Accurate diagnosis involves a series of evaluations using various methods:

  • Mammography: X-ray imaging to detect abnormalities in breast tissue.
  • Ultrasound: Utilizes sound waves to create images of breast tissue.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): Produces detailed images for comprehensive diagnosis.
  • Biopsy: Extracts tissue for microscopic examination to confirm cancer presence.

Treatment Options

Treatment plans are customized based on cancer type, stage, and the patient’s overall health:

  • Surgery: Options include lumpectomy (removal of the tumor) or mastectomy (removal of the entire breast).
  • Radiation Therapy: Uses high-energy radiation to eliminate cancer cells post-surgery.
  • Chemotherapy: Employs drugs to destroy cancer cells, administered orally or intravenously.
  • Hormone Therapy: Prevents hormones from promoting cancer growth.
  • Targeted Therapy: Focuses on specific characteristics of cancer cells, like HER2 proteins.
  • Palliative Care: Aims to improve quality of life by managing symptoms and side effects.

Breast Cancer Treatment Cost in India

Breast Cancer Treatment Cost in India options compared to many Western nations:

  • Surgery: INR 1,50,000 to INR 3,50,000 (USD 2,000 to USD 4,500)
  • Chemotherapy: INR 60,000 to INR 1,50,000 (USD 800 to USD 2,000) per cycle
  • Radiation Therapy cost : INR 1,20,000 to INR 2,50,000 (USD 1,600 to USD 3,300)
  • Hormone Therapy: INR 20,000 to INR 50,000 (USD 270 to USD 700) per month
  • Targeted Therapy: INR 1,00,000 to INR 2,00,000 (USD 1,300 to USD 2,600) per month

These costs vary based on the type of treatment, hospital, location, and duration of the treatment.


Breast cancer necessitates a thorough approach that includes prevention, early detection, and effective treatment. India’s healthcare system offers affordable and high-quality treatment options for breast cancer. By understanding the disease, its treatment methods, and associated costs, patients can make informed decisions to manage breast cancer effectively, aiming for better outcomes and enhanced quality of life.


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